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Figure 1. Increase in RDP-related service crashes when the Metasploit module was released. After extracting indicators of compromise and pivoting to various related signal intelligence, Microsoft security researchers found that an earlier coin mining campaign in September used a main implant that contacted the same command-and-control infrastructure used during the October BlueKeep Metasploit campaign, which, in cases where the exploit did not cause the system to crash, was also observed installing a coin miner.
This indicated that the same attackers were likely responsible for both coin mining campaigns—they have been actively staging coin miner attacks and eventually incorporated the BlueKeep exploit into their arsenal. Our machine learning models flagged the presence of the coin miner payload used in these attacks on machines in France, Russia, Italy, Spain, Ukraine, Germany, the United Kingdom, and many other countries.
Once attackers found such machines, they used the BlueKeep Metasploit module to run a PowerShell script that eventually downloaded and launched several other encoded PowerShell scripts. Figure 3. Techniques and components used in initial attempts to exploit BlueKeep. We pieced together the behaviors of the PowerShell scripts using mostly memory dumps.
The following script activities have also been discussed in external researcher blogs :. Figure 4. Memory dump of a PowerShell script used in the attacks. The coin miner connected to command-and-control infrastructure at 5.
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Other coin miners deployed in earlier campaigns that did not exploit BlueKeep also connected to this same IP address. Security signals and forensic analysis show that the BlueKeep Metasploit module caused crashes in some cases, but we cannot discount enhancements that will likely result in more effective attacks. In addition, while there have been no other verified attacks involving ransomware or other types of malware as of this writing, the BlueKeep exploit will likely be used to deliver payloads more impactful and damaging than coin miners.
The new exploit attacks show that BlueKeep will be a threat as long as systems remain unpatched, credential hygiene is not achieved, and overall security posture is not kept in check. Customers are encouraged to identify and update vulnerable systems immediately. Many of these unpatched devices could be unmonitored RDP appliances placed by suppliers and other third-parties to occasionally manage customer systems.
Because BlueKeep can be exploited without leaving obvious traces, customers should also thoroughly inspect systems that might already be infected or compromised. To this end, Microsoft customers can use the rich capabilities in Microsoft Defender Advanced Threat Protection Microsoft Defender ATP to gain visibility on exploit activities and defend networks against attacks.
On top of the behavior-based antivirus and endpoint detection and response EDR detections, we released a threat analytics report to help security operations teams to conduct investigations specific to this threat. We also wrote advanced hunting queries that customers can use to look for multiple components of the attack.
Questions, concerns, or insights on this story? Read all Microsoft security intelligence blog posts. So, firms have been pursuing innovation ceaselessly Dosi, ; Freeman, Technological lifecycle classifies innovation as incremental or radical. This research aims at showing the importance of existing knowledge stock destruction and exploitation in order to catch the newness.
When a firm develops a new products through incremental improvements to the functions of the existing instruments, I see it as innovation output. While numerous innovations involve only step by step changes within a particular module of a product or process, in some cases, innovations can bring architectural changes and redefine the overall design of the product or process. All innovations happen in order to meet the market demand i. Choosing the innovation types is a critical strategy decision since innovation types can provide different customer values.
Firms are more likely to prefer incremental innovation rather radical innovation in terms of diminishing the risks, the easy use of existing knowledge Han and Ko, ; Raviola and Dubini, Hommels et al. Cognitive dimensions, knowledge driven strategy, and absorptive capacity are likely to determine the preference for innovation in terms of informal inbound innovation Veronica, et al. The acquisition of new knowledge and its explorations are few of the fundamental company strategies Foster, In order to do this, firms can conduct to a successful inbound know-how transfer process and create value within open innovation Dubickis and Gaile-Sarkane, When it is impossible to break through efficiency of parts, architecture innovation is triggered.
Also, this study provides the procedural framework for success on the system changes focusing product innovation process through the case. Until vibration feeding flip with copper pillar flip chip was invented, rotational flip chip mechanism had been regarded as principle operation mechanism as a dominant design for OSAT. Newness, from rotational flip chip into vibration feeding flip with copper pillar chip VFFPC can be regarded as radical change result from destroying the architectural knowledge.
In this article I focus on the innovation process at OSAT firm to investigate the knowledge exploitation as perspective of architectural innovation. In order to do this, I employ the qualitative methodology. In addition, internal documents of the technology development have also been utilised. This paper is constructed as follows. In Section 2, I review the existing literature. In Section 3, the semiconductor industry is analysed in detail. In Section 4, conclusions are drawn from the findings and implications are presented. Innovation is a quest into the unknown.
In general, the definition of architectural innovation is either the improvement of existing parts in order to enhance the core concept of component of systems or changing the connections between the components Henderson and Clark, ; Christensen, ; Teece et al. The change in the connecting parts is accompanied by the relevant parts of the upgrade.
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Architecture innovation happens when improved efficiency of part is more the concern rather changing the system architecture directly. There is considerable evidence that technical innovations involve modest changes to the existing technology, but have dramatically competitive consequences Clark, Innovation patterns deal primarily with existing technology i.
There is a critical concept to understand why technology is changing. That is the concept of dominant design. Dominant design is a stabilized operational principle or product architecture that gains a majority of the market Murmann and Frenken, An era of incremental change brings the chance for innovation. These innovations include as follows: product to process innovation Abernathy and Utterback, ; a general reduction of innovativeness, such as: cost reduction; minor component and subsystem innovation.
These activities can be accompanied by product customization for differentiated market segments. The reason that existing firm is inclined to focus on product innovation as opposed to innovating the architecture is because an era of incremental change is marked by organizational, social and political stabilization Tushman and Rosenkopf, Namely, firms have a propensity for loIr level problem solving Funk, As mentioned above, I believed that in an era of incremental innovation, there are numerous technical innovations that involve seemingly modest changes to the existing technology, but have quite dramatic competitive consequences.
The main concern of this paper is to understand how an outsmycing firm vieId as having no system knowledge can be successful in the architectural innovation by obviously changing the operational principle from existing rotational into vibrational ways for Pick-and Place instruments. For most companies, being the market dominator is the final goal. In particular, manufacturing companies e. Innovation is intensive and focused action that can allow firms to generate new knowledge and to apply it to new productions Fagerberg et al.
Newness is not always innovation. In particular, the semiconductor industry tends to innovate persistently in the high-tech industry Jelinek and Schoonhoven, Typically after dominant designs emerge, existing firms are likely to set up incremental innovation Anderson and Tushman, For incremental change, product architecture remains stable Henderson and Clark, What take places for firms after a dominant design Tushman and Murmann, emerges, at least until the next technological disruption, is the main concern in this paper.
To achieve these research goals, I take the case of the Pick-and Place Machine semiconductor packaging machines that is used to protect chips and core electron elements e. Semiconductors are sophisticated and embody the complicated characteristics of the manufacturing process, which is further disseminated into a subdivided production process. The characteristics of this process have necessitated the division of the manufacturing into two parts, the front-end and back-end processes.
In this case study, I deal with an innovation case in the aforementioned back-end process. The back-end process manufacturer OSAT has become a fierce market competitor because of the expansion of semiconductor packaging technology. Thus, OSATs have packaged chips from wafer being used as a component in numerous electronics products e.
Architectural innovation changes the way in which the components of a product are linked together, while leaving the core design concepts and thus the basic knowledge underlying the components, untouched Henderson and Clark, Henderson and Clark also defined a component as a physically distinct portion of the product that embodies a core design concept and performs well- defined function. Considering that what the definition of architectural innovation Henderson and Clark, ; Christensen, is, the distinction between incremental innovation and radical innovation, radical innovation establishes a new dominant design and, hence, a new set of core design concepts embodied in components that are linked together in a new architecture.
Exploitation of architectural knowledge and innovation
Figure 1 shows the classification of innovation type by Henderson and Clark Henderson and Clark suggested that innovation can change when the core design concept of technology, and innovation type can be differentiated relationship the core design. The distinction from Modular innovation and Incremental innovation depend on how much intensity of degree of core concept technology.
In the same way, the differentiation between Architecture innovation and Radical also depend on how much of degree of modular innovation. Successful product development requires two types of knowledge: component knowledge and architectural knowledge. The former is the knowledge about each of the core design concepts and the way in which they are implemented in a particular component. The latter is the knowledge about the ways in which the components are integrated and linked together into a coherent whole.
The essence of an architectural innovation is the reconfiguration of an established system to link together existing components in a new way Henderson and Clark, They also note that architectural innovation is often triggered by a change in component design- perhaps size or some other subsidiary parts of its design.
Architectural innovation presents established firms with a more subtle challenge. Subtle challenge comes from aggregated knowledge in existing firms. Henderson and Clark suggested that the technological knowledge behind innovation can be divided in two dimensions: knowledge of the components and knowledge of the linkage between them, called architectural knowledge.
As the innovation consists of a new idea and its implementation into a new product, process or service, innovation is not a one-time phenomenon.
Rather, innovation is a long time cumulative process of a great number of organizational decision-making process, ranging from the phase of generation of a new idea to its implementation phase. As I reviewed, knowledge is key component to innovation; knowledge flows related to innovative activities are a core component of the first major implementations dealing with the details and specificities of how innovations are being created and how the innovation process can best be organized Witt, In case of radical innovation, as mentioned above, the firm uses totally different knowledge.
Namely it creates new challenges for established firms, since it destroys the usefulness of their existing capabilities Henderson and Clark, There are two dimensions that I can use to separate an incremental from a radical innovation: The first is an internal dimension, based on the knowledge and outsourcing involved.
An incremental innovation will build upon existing knowledge within a certain company, meaning it will be competence-enhancing. A radical innovation, on the other hand, will require completely new knowledge and will be, therefore, competence-destroying. The second dimension, the external one, differentiates the innovation based on the technological changes and on the impact upon the market competitiveness. An incremental innovation will involve modest technological changes and the existing products on the market will remain competitive. A radical innovation will instead involve large technological advancements, rendering the existing products non-competitive and obsolete.
Furthermore, in essence, the tacit i. Han and Cho suggested PSE Platform model contained Killer contents as a concept of architectural knowledge and technology component that is functionally interdependent with other components. Existing firms should confront the market environment or technology in order to pioneer the markets. In the same context, firms should build knowledge and capabilities around the recurrent tasks they perform that are shaped by the intra-experience with an evolving technology. Architectural knowledge is critical for keeping innovation capabilities and to cope with emerging complexities.
In order to achieve the research aims, this study analyses an example of innovative activity through The K company hereafter, The K , a global semiconductor packaging firm in South Korea. Innovation process at the firm level takes a long time to reach the market, therefore qualitative cast study methodology is more appropriate Baxter and Jack, That is the participant and observable case study Yin, When taking into consideration the prudent context of innovation process a single case study is adaptable.
Interviews Ire conducted to the Research and Development division managers, especially product managers. The conversations during the interviews has focused on motivation of new developments, the role of knowledge stock, perceived threats and strengths of the firm. Respondents Ire asked about the story of the innovation experiences they were involved in and the story of the recent semiconductor industry.
In particular, I focused my interviews on the development of new idea and knowledge exploitation. The author acknowledges that this process could have some biases, but it offers considerable advantages over other methods, particular during the exploratory phase of the research.